Positive Impacts of Tourism on the Environment
1.Conservation – this is based on agriculture, logging and mining and other types of activities which give an extra economic benefit and conserving the environment, with its natural landscapes .(Beech and Chadwick,2006). Tourism is based on the environmental resources and attractions, the environment itself is an attraction.
In the less developed countries tourism acts as a “force of conservation ”(Page and Connell, 2009:435), for example, the National parks in Kenya and Namibia are thought to be tools of conservation and a development of economy. “Tourist spending generates local employment, demand for local good and crafts and helps to justify protection of natural resources.” (Page and Connell, 2009:435)
2.Eco-tourism – this type of tourism concentrates more on the natural environment than on the tourists and this is well known. (Beech and Chadwick, 2006) Tourism is seen as an important part of the economy that’s why local governments became very interested in developing it.
For example, Center Parcs development in the Sherwood Forest, UK planted 500 000 trees, seeded natural grass and wild flower species which increased the diversity of the forest. (Page and Connell,2009)
3.Sustainability – “ensuring cooperation between carriers, hotel companies and operators so that any development is not for short-term gain but in the long-term interests of the locals.” (Holloway et al, 2009:158)
- for example, Cox and Kings promised that for every tourist that is buying their environmental tour they will buy an acre of forest in Belize , to make sure that the forest will continue its development;
- in the accommodation sector that not only that some of them became environment friendly, but also found a reason in decreasing their spending by using the method of washing towels only if they really feel they need to do it;
- in Hawaii for example the hotels put some flow regulators of water at showers and taps. (Holloway et al, 2009)
4.Transformation of unused buildings in tourists attractions or even accommodations; for example old woollen mills and industrial lands, unused lands that were transformed in parks.(Page and Connell, 2009)
5.Infrastructure development: “Improvements of roads, water supply and treatment and waste management systems can result from increased revenue from tourism.” (Gee et al, 1997:259), these types of improvements can decrease the pollution and also can have a positive impact on environment (Gee et al, 1997).
Beech, J. and Chadwick, S. (2006), The business of tourism management, Essex: Pearson Education Limited.
Gee, C. Y , World Tourism Organization and Fayos-Sola, E. (1997), International Tourism: a global perspective, Spain: WTO.
Holloway, J. C. , Humphreys, C. and Davidson, R (2009), The business of tourism , 8th edition,Essex:Pearson Education Limited.
Page, S. J. and Connell, J. (2009), Tourism a modern synthesis, 3rd edition. Hampshire: Cengage Learning EMEA.